Judicial Branch-As a whole this branch interprets the law and administers justice.
Circuit Courts-Everyday trial courts of the state of Illinois. These courts decide guilt from everything from traffic tickets to murder. They may also hear cases about divorce, child custody, abuse, or juvenile crimes. The 6th Circuit Court of Illinois in Markham is one you may be familiar with.
Appellate Courts-Just like the Appeals courts in the federal system, these courts are used by defendants to challenge previous decisions by circuit courts. If someone thinks they are innocent or the court did not see all the details, they might decide to try and appeal the case or change their mind.
Illinois Supreme Court-This part can be slightly confusing given what you already know about the United States Judicial Branch. You may think to yourself, I thought we already did the Supreme Court? Yes we did, at the United States level. The Illinois Supreme Court is the final decision on Illinois law, not United States or Federal law. If no decision can be made it is possible for a case to then be sent to the United States Supreme Court.
Interesting court cases: Try looking these up online. They have had HUGE implications on our country:
-Brown vs Board of Education Topeka
-Roe vs Wade
-United States vs Amistad
-Gideon vs Wainwright
-Miranda vs Arizona
-Obergefell vs Hodges
Illinois Supreme Court